On this page:

interfacepsychology Background
Research
Interface requirements
Interfaces psychology based
Press



Background

After primary school and teacher training college he studied educational psychology (University Utrecht) and applied experimental psychology (University Utrecht). Leonard Verhoef started his career as a cognitive psychologist investigating the development of human thinking. Now he is a psychological designer of ultimate cognitive psychology based interfaces for complex systems people use to perform cognitive tasks.



Research on human thinking He started with research on the development of human thinking and the implementation of that knowledge in mathematics at school, a mathematics test. He took tried to find an answer on the question what is really wrong with today's interface design and interfaces like GUI's and Windows (and the Mac as well!). The answer is not: designers are to blame (as Norman suggests). Nor are the managers to blame (as Cooper suggests). He suggests to look at psychology.The University of Leiden nominated Thomas Cool and Leonard Verhoef for with their proposal for a
To top.



Application of cognitive research
x
GUI and webgrammar graphics statistics futur next generation infographics

Icon designverkeersbord spoorwegovergang

Public info public transporttrain ticket vending machines

rekenonderwijs optellen aftrekken basisschool computer diagnostiek remedial teaching

GUI and webGUI graphical user interface command user commandline prompt MS-DOS

GUI and webnavigatie met menu of tabel startpagina desktop

GUI and webmetaforen antropomorf denken begrijpen

Icon designconcreet of abstract afbeelden icon pictogram bewegwijzering bord infographics

Leren rekenenrekenonderwijs optellen aftrekken basisschool computer diagnostiek remedial teaching

Leren rekenenleren rekenen optellen aftrekken basisschool nieuwe intelligentie algoritme

Psychologietoekomst van de toegepaste cognitievecognitief denkpsychologie

Psychologie denkenicon design pictogram bord bewegwijzering

Psychologie denkentoegepaste cognitief denkpsychologie

Psychologie denkenmetaforen toegepaste cognitief denkpsychologie

Psychologie denkentoegepaste cognitief denkpsychologie

Public info public transport

To top.



Interface requirements As a psychologist he participates in the development of systems for professionals (process operators, traffic controllers, high speed train drivers) and public information systems (travel information, ticket vending machines, travel planners). His focus is not readability but performing a task with complex systems.He changed from a psychologist observing the problems after a system has been built to a psychologist specifying in advance how to build a system. As a consequence it is right from the beginning, there is little discussion and the system is effective. An example of such a system is Another well known design in which psychology was dictating the interface is the Netherlands Railways touch screen train ticket vending machine. This vending machine has not the traditional sequential and hierarchical (menu) structure but a parallel n-dimensional and orthogonal structure. That is unusual and sounds complicated, but people 92 years of age can use the machine without explanation and help of any kind.
The way he applies experimental psychology is made public in the course and in the course
boek, cognitief, gui, webdesign, psychologie, gebruiksvriendelijkheid, ontwerp, usability
To top.



Interfaces based on psychology in the first place

As a one man company he is able to develop his ideas on interface design with psychological processes as the only standard. By now he has developed several designs in which technology, marketing, Design and opinions of users do not disturb compatibility with psychological processes. So, userfriendlyness is no problem. What is next? Technology changes. It is difficult to predict what technology will offer. Psychological processes do not change. For him it is easy to specify requirements that fit psychological processes. The fundamentals of these processes do not change easily. Consequently, an interface based on these processes is sustainable.
To top.



Applications of cognitive psychology:
Dutch:    English:     


Dutch:           English:  


Dutch:      English:      
        


Dutch:            
  


Dutch:            
English:   


Dutch:       English:  


Dutch: English:    


To top.



Paper press

Beaten M. (1991). Koffieboon kan het woord koffie niet vervangen, Interview met L. Verhoef. Trouw, no. Zaterdag 16 februari 1991.

Berckel, F. van, (1990). Pictogram staat voor concessie en compromis, Interview met L. Verhoef. Design, vol. 4, no. 1, pag. 32-33.

Bie, R. de, (1997). Treincomputer dingt mee naar designprijs. Koppeling, no. 354.

Bowen, D.J. (1994). Dutch Eurodisplay may presage standard for HSR Cab Displays. High Speed Transport news, vol. 3, no. 4.

Commijs, H. (1988). 't Is niet eenvoudig geweest om het zover te krijgen, De Silhouette is simpel te bedienen. Rotterdam: Van NelleVan Nelle Grootverbruik Zakennieuws, vol. 3, no. 2, pag. 3.

Kwant, J., (2009). Snap je machine, Flow.

Noë, F. (1993). Software-ergonomie blijft missiewerk. Automatiserings Gids, no 23 juli.

Ordelman, T. (1989). Een mens heeft meer dan alleen handen en voeten, Interview met L. Verhoef. Siemens Interview, trends in computers en communicatie, no. 34.

Velden, A. van der, (1990). De Kaartenmaker wil te veel en durft te weinig, interview. Het Parool, no. Zaterdag 6 oktober 1990, pag. 31.

Verkaik-Smeets, (1991). Ergonomie van het gezonde verstand. PC+, no. 18 december, pag. 18-20.

Vrijenhoef, H. (1979). Rekenonderwijs de kwantiwijzer: een diagnostisch instrumentarium voor het rekenonderwijs O4, maandblad voor de verzorging van het onderwijs. Vol. 9, no 11. pag. 2-5.

Weststrate, P. (1988). Er moet nog veel veranderen, Interview met L. Verhoef. Haagse Courant, vol. Zaterdag 30 april.

Search in humanefficiency.nl

Examples of designs he contributed to


Complex data



Demo cognitief psychologisch verantwoorde 'kilometerteller', vooral voor de bestuurder van een zelfrijdende auto.

complex process presentation
Upper right red,
Close to disaster

complex process presentation
All OK.

complex process presentation
Upper right yellow low,
take care!

complex process presentation
Upper right yellow high,
take care!
Source: Verhoef Holslag,
2010.

leerroute beheers systeem
Source: LBS/Holslag Verhoef.


Sourrce: Holslag Verhoef


How much information
can be in one of these
smiley?
Source: Verhoef Holslag,
2010.


Design of tables


Graphics for aesthetics,
OECD house style.
Source: OECD quarterly
growth table.
http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx


No graphics, data only.
Same data as previous
table.


Same data as previous
table.
Graphics for content.
OECD, adapted by
Verhoef for demo.


Design of scales







One variable,
six parameters,
233 milliseconds
perception time.


An effective problem solving
tool.
Source: Holslag & Verhoef.


Portrait or
landscape?

train traffic control information portrait orientation
What is better for a
train traffic
controler?
  • portrait ...
  • train traffic control information landscape orientation

  • ...landscape?

  • Source: Holslag & Verhoef.

    What is better
    for car driving?
    tom tom autonavigatie scherm
  • ... realistic landscape?
    Source: Tom Tom, 2010.


  • auto route reisplanner reizen
  • alphanumerical portrait
    ...?
  • In this case the best
    orientation is ...

    Source: Verhoef, 2010.

    etcs ermts mmi dmi planning
  • abstract portrait ...?

  • Source: ETCS/Verhoef.

    Train traffic
    control


    How to present
    tracks and platforms?
    Presentation of tracks and platforms for train traffic controlers
  • This way?

  • Presentation of tracks and platforms for train traffic controlers
  • Or this way?

  • Source: NS/Verhoef.


    Screen design
    public transport


    Design of in car systems


    Speed control information for cars.
    Point with cursor for an explanation.


    Design of train indicators

    Departure in 30 min.


    Grey half circle:
    Go shoping.
    Departure in 30 min.

    Departure in 15 min..
    Yellow 1/4 circle:
    Go to train.
    Departure in 15 min.


    Departure in 30 sec.

    Source: Amersfoort, The Netherlands, 2008.


    Orange half circle:
    Hurry up!
    Departure in 30 sec.

    Source: Experimental
    designs, Verhoef 2010.


    Trains indicator Amsterdam approx. 1990-2010

    Experimental design destinations indicator.
    Source: Verhoef.

    Design ticket vending


    Check in/out Dutch electronic public transport ticket system (trip costs, debit remaining, bye bye ).

    Experimental check in/out device.
    Source: Verhoef
    NS touch screen train ticket vending machine
    NS touch screen train
    ticket vending machine
    Routing problems
    solved using ...



    Ticket vending machine.
    Language optionfirst step
    (hierarchical solution)?
    Source: Belgium Railways.


    Ticket vending machine.
    Change language any time
    (parallel solution).
    Source: NS/ Verhoef.

    Netherlands Railways touch screen train ticket vending machine.

    It looks like a menu.
    However,
    no hierarchical steps.
    What is the structure?"

    Which button is
    to help whizzkids
    and it-specialists?
    Source: NS/Verhoef.


    coffee drink vending machine, use of gray out.
    The train ticket vending
    machine solution is general
    applicable. It also can
    be used for complex drink
    vending machines.
    Source: Verhoef.


    High speed train driving
    ETCS, (European Train Control System)

    Experimental
    speedometers


    Analog classical
    experimental clock design
    Train speed: 192.
    Maximum permitted speed
    200. Next target permitted
    speed 40. Good for general
    maintain speed task,
    bad for planning and when
    close to intervention.

    Analog design, screen
    version


    Diagrammatic design,
    vertical version.
    Braking curve should
    not touch maximum
    permitted speed curve.
    The tongue below should
    fit in the pipe above.
    Good for planning and
    insight, bad when
    close to intervention.


    Diagrammatic design,
    horizontal version.
    Comparable with
    vertical version.


    Animated design
    Braking curve should not
    touch max permitted
    speed curve. The “vehicle”
    in front should not be too
    close. Good when close to
    intervention, bad for
    planning and insight.

    etcs mmi, ermts, high speed driving speedometer
    Speed and
    safety information
    for high speed train
    drivers.
    The one that is now
    standard.
    Source: ETCS/Verhoef.

    To top of this list of pictures.


    Consistency


    Cab with inconsistent
    interfaces. Visible, even
    at low resolution.
    Inconsistent presentation
    and input of:
    date, time, numbers, colours,
    enter procedures, control of
    attention.


    Cab with consistent
    interfaces. No differences in
    presentation and input of:
    date, time, numbers, colours,
    enter procedures, control of
    attention.


    Consistent icon design.
    The graphic elements can
    be combined for current
    functions and for functions
    to be developped. The
    graphic elements are like
    words. Designers can create
    new sentences. Drivers
    knowing the elements can
    understand new
    combinations of

    words/icons.

    To top of this list of pictdures.



    Use of colours


    Same use of colours for all
    information. Colour is used
    for control of attention.


    Use of colour, white: no
    braking curve.


    Use of colour, yellow:
    brake shortly.


    Use of colour, orange:
    brake now!!


    Use of colour, red:
    brake too late, intervention.

    This use of colour for
    control of user's attention
    can be used for any systems,
    for instance for passengers
    and teachers.


    To top of mmi concepts list.




    Planning

    At the right maximum train
    speed profile ahead. Lower
    maximum speed at 1000m.

    The planning design was
    based on the experimental
    diagrammatic design
    (see above).


    Time to intervention

    The small square at the top
    left shows that there is
    sufficient time to safety
    system brake intervention.


    Train braking curve is
    close to safety braking
    curve. The square top
    left shows time to
    intervention of the
    safety system. Time
    to intervention depends
    on maximum permitted
    speed minus current
    speed and the traction/
    brake application. When
    looking outside the
    square is in the visal
    periphery but will be
    noticed when it comes
    up because: the
    periphery is sensitive
    for changes, for high
    contrast changes and
    the square is at the
    top of the screen.
    This design was based
    on the experimental
    animated design
    (see above). Nautical screens

    To top.