Discords in signposting
Causes of restlessness in signposting: technology, marketing, inconsistency, colour, double function and realism.
European Sign Magazine, no 5, 1988, pag. 24-38
Last editorial changes: December 2009
Dr. Leonard Verhoef,
applied cognitive psychologist.
For designing complex things.
Not a designer.
After studying educational psychology and applied experimental psychology Dr. Leonard Verhoef did research on human thinking. He applied scientific cognitive psychological knowledge in designs for car drivers, skippers, and high speed train drivers. His designs for public transport passengers and people trying to escape a disaster, reduce reading time, travel time and the number of casualties substantially. This also applies for controlers (train, traffic, process) in normal practice, disturbed situations and when disaster strikes.
More, click and go to: CV.
|Abstract||Signposts must have a smoothing effect. What makes navigation restless?|
|Taking into account the requirements of the user more in architectorial planning, reduces restlessness of navigation and the need for signposting proportional. Some ergonomics engineers have the opinion that signposting represents a failure of architecture (Canter, 1984).||It is quite obvious, that architecture may well have either a positive or a negative effect on way-finding. Important architectural requirements for way-finding are visibility of the structure and the availability of orientation points.|
1.1 Presentation of technical structures
A discrepancy between the structure of the physical architecture and what the user sees can cause restlessness.
Figure 1. The effect of a mirror
The mirror has no effect yet.
Source: New York, approx. 1995.
Figure 2. The effect of mirror
The mirror has a dramatic effect.
The mirror shows at the left of the pedestrian an empty street. The pedestrian might conclude that he can cross safely. However, he is looking at a mirror showing the street at the right.
Behind the mirror there might be traffic on the street he is going to cross.
Source: New York, approx. 1995.
||Figure 3. The artistic design of this underground station |
The distinct design reduces the number of passengers confusing similar designed underground stations.
Source: Underground station Stockholm 1985.
Figure 4. Architecture does not show function|
This looks like a shopping mall. It is a station. To increase awareness of entering a station the tiles on the floor form patterns of rails and sleepers.
Source: Utrecht Central station, approx. 1995.
Nevertheless, not only technicians involved in buildings who force their mental model onto the users.
Figure 5. Technology versus user’s target for signposting
The pictograms show transport technologies (bus, rail, underground, water).
The pictograms do not show targets (e.g. city center, suburbs, international, intercontinental). It is not clear whether the boat sign refers to the boats heading for America or for the other side of the lake at that side of the station. In that station there are passengers for both targets.
Source: Amsterdam central station 2008.
Figure 6. Architects’s vision is central in signposting
For architects expressions such as exit and side are very important e.g. This sign should be mounted in the hall at the exit city center side (Dutch: Uitgang Centrumzijde). For the user only the objective is of importance: center. That is 66% less text.
Figure 7. User’s vision is central in signposting
City center is all the user need.
All users expect that there is a side
and an exit at the direction indicated.
Source: Cologne Central Station, approx. 1985.
1.2 Providing points of orientation|
Orientation points should be visible from as many positions within the system as possible. Mentally good orientation points are those that obviously are quite different from others and eye catching as well.
|For example, a square and a hall are very different from a street and a passage. Works of art also can be eye-catching, recognizable and memorable orientation points. See figure 3 above.|
Horseshoe shaped plan, e.g. for a shopping mall. A distinct piece of art in the heel of the shoe can be seen from every corner.
|The influence of advertising on the effectiveness of signposting information was studied by Boersema and Zwaga (1985). From this survey it appeared that the conspicuousness of signposting can be reduced by advertising by a large amount. In the old days and even more today, presenting the marketing name of the travel product is more important than presenting relevant travel information such as: delays, other destinations and differences between destinations of front and rear of the train.|
Straight on or to the right for the train to Paris/Amsterdam, Paris/Amsterdam Germany, London?
|Marketers and sign posters, both try to attract the visual attention of the user. Generally speaking the marketer has the advantage, as he has more budget available for this purpose. Figures 7 above and 8 at the right show examples of conflicting marketing and passenger interests.|
|The signposting trade is a difficult one. Particularly in the case of large and complex buildings such as shopping centers and hospitals. In the foregoing some examples of good signposting were given. However, there are some mistakes as well. Inconsistency is one of them.||Repetition is more restful than change; less has to be recalled. When the user knows that the signposting is blue, he can find signposts easier than when he does not know what colour to look for. Inconsistency can occur when several systems are integrated. Bus, underground, train stations, airport terminals and shopping centers are integrated more and more.||In the Netherlands public transport was well on the way in consistency. All road information for motorists and travel information for train travelers was presented in white characters on a dark blue background. Almost all buses were painted in public transport yellow. Unfortunately, after privatization public transport colours depend on the house style of that moment of that commercial company that is running the service. The way public transport information is presented depends on commercial aims more than on passenger efficiency aims.|
4 Use of colour
|Design errors can be made in selecting colours. |
It does happen that a designer selects a colour scheme in such a way, that light symbols appear on a light background. This proved insufficient contrast, making the text illegible. Of course, when red and green are used they should not have the same luminance. In that case red-green colour blinds can see the difference.
|In addition to physiological requirements there are psychological requirements. Colours do not have an ordinal structure. Seeing a blue room gives no indication of where the green room is. Knowing one is in the north wing of a building many users know where to find the south wing. When you know you are on floor five, you are also aware of the position of floor 6. It is common practice of designers to allocate specific meanings to colours. Users might not be aware of the specific interpretation.||Unless we are prepared to personally tell each passenger at the entrance to the building that colour is being used and what the meaning of the colours is. For example, Wright (1988) has studied what the effect is of the difference between the background colour on a board which gives information per floor. The floor at which the users happened to be at the time, had a different colour. After having used the boards several times, when asked, the subjects did not notice the use of colour nor were they able to explain the meaning of the colour.|
5 Double functions
|Creativity and artistic considerations might suggest form for signs having more functions. Functional fixedness is a cognitive bias that limits the user to interpret a sign only one way. In most cases that is the is traditional meaning. The figures below show such riddles.|
Figure 8. Arrows having two functions, |
Having two functions one function might be missed.
In this Pinokio amusement park Pinokio’s nose is used as arrow.
The pointing function of the nose might be missed because of the esthetic function it has as well.
Figure 9. Characters having two functions, one function might be missed|
The name of the restaurant is tijd (Dutch for time). The characters i and j form the hands of a clock. A creative design. Users might not notice the clock, nor the name of the restaurant.
Figure 10. What is this?|
This is art. Under the umbrellas and on the chair bus passengers
can wait for their bus. The bus stop sign is at the left.
Source: Den Bosch, the Netherlands, approx. 1985
Realists are information designers who picture a given situation as it is. Examples are:|
- floor plans
- arranging products sold per floor
- arranging targets per direction.
|A realistic presentation of information is an odd way to present information as one helps the user who cannot find his way in the real situation. Arranging products per floor he has no option but to start at the top of the directory, hoping that the product is sold in the attic and not in the basement. Hence, Wright (1988) claims, correctly, that signposting at elevators must not be graded by floor, but by the target of the user. This can be an alphabetic arrangement, by type of facility (shops, offices, clothing, retailers, groceries), enables the user to skip many targets. Realism not only can lead to longer search time but also to more serious problems (see figure at the right).||
Figure 11. Realism in icons causing serious problems|
Elevator entrance at the top floor.
The elevator only goes down, so only the down arrow is shown. This might cause serious problems for passengers urgently searching a toilet
but finding themselves in an elevator.
These problems can be prevented by adding an up arrow.
6 Discords in design
|This psychological evaluation of common design practice might confuse designers.||If so, that is their problem. There is no need at all for users getting lost in complex systems.|
|More applied psychology for public and transport information||
|More applied psychology for other domains:||
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Leonard Verhoef, theoretical and practical background. From an experimental coginitive psychologist to a designer of simple and complex daily life systems in a technical future.
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