Course: Designing information,
for fast, safe and errorless
passenger, car driver, skipper and emergency performance

Benefits

  • More complex and cost effective transport systems can be accepted because passengers understand the system.

  • Less (ticket vending) machines because users perform fast and errorless.


  •      More benefits.
  • Less costs for information systems and shorter travel times at the same time.

  • Less staff load because passengers notice and understand the information presented. There is no need for passengers to ask staff.
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    Theoretical basis

    Learn how to design perfect public (transport) information systems, using psychology of perception, language, learning and thinking. Put aside for one moment: experience, usable, design, intuitive, look and feel, marketing, personal opinions and technology. Focus on: requirements, direct application using hundreds of simple and known interfaces, evaluation of common sense and... opinions, problems and interfaces of participants.In general, interface design is a rather practical profession. "Just tell me what to do." Guidelines, norms and standards are tools frequently asked for. Real experts know that won't work. Many problems have been solved using common sense and trial and error. But you cannot find a cure for a serious illness using only common sense and trial and error. For interface design this was proven in 'Why designers can't understand their users'.Why designers can“t understand their users, developing a systematic approach using cognitive psychology, usability
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    Practical basis

    Can a course based on science be practical? Yes, it can. A theory is valid only when you can test it.
    Usually that is done using 'test items' for experiments.
    However, you can also make theory concrete using requirements and design solutions.
    Secondly, hundreds of interfaces are shown that are straightforward compatible or incompatible with the theory.

    The theory is applied to communicate:
    When is?,
    What is?,
    Where is?.

    At, for, in, of, or on:
    Emergency situations.
    Machines: elevator, gates, vending.
    Spaces: amusement park, hotels, malls, parkings, restaurants, stops, street, transport terminal.
    Transport vehicles: leisure, own cars, pedestrians, public, taxis.
    Time: now, of departure, to departure, opening hours.

    Using:
    Electronics media: Internet, lcd, led, screen or whatever.
    Static Boards: indicators, posters.
    Paper: books, posters.
    Signs, graphics and text: arrows, directories, maps, pictograms, You are here indications.

    Resulting in systems that are:
    memorisable, notable, readable and understandable for users. In most cases they are cheaper than usual systems as well.

    Interfaces discussed can be from projects Human Efficiency participated in.

  • The most important examples used are the designs of participants, of course.


  • One well known example is Netherlands Railways train ticket vending machine This is a typical Human Efficiency interface, perfect for expert users, as well as for passengers 92 years of age.


  •    Touch screen ticket vending machine

  • Some interfaces were specially designed for this course. These examples are theoretical, they show the application of psychology without account to other considerations and it takes a few seconds to understand the principles.

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    Program

    Part I:
    1.
    1.1

    1.1.1
    1.1.2
    1.1.3
    1.2

    1.2.1
    1.2.2
    1.2.3

    1.3

    2.
    2.1

    2.1.1
    2.1.2



    2.1.3
    2.1.4
    2.1.5
    2.1.6
    2.2

    3.
    3.1

    3.1.1
    3.1.2
    3.1.3


    3.2

    Visible environment
    Size of elements
    Readability

    Line of sight
    Irradiation
    Blinds
    Conspicuity

    Next bus to depart
    Next train to depart
    Entry in a list
    Don’t use a large size for:

    Form of elements
    Identification and readability

    Numbers
    Time:
    … now
    … of departure
    … opening hours
    Font case
    Road and public line identification
    Reflecting surfaces
    Irradiating signs
    Form and pictures not for …

    Luminance of elements
    Identification and readability
    Minimal luminance
    Maximal luminance
    Gradual luminance change …
    … switching on light
    … entering a dark space
    Luminance not for …
     4.
    4.1

    4.1.1
    4.1.2
    4.1.3
    4.1.4
    4.1.5
    4.1.6


    4.2

    4.2.1
    4.2.2
    4.2.3
    4.2.4
    4.3
    4.4








    5.
    5.1

    5.1.1
    5.1.2
    5.2

    5.2.1
    5.2.2
    5.3

    5.3.1
    5.3.2




    6.
    6.1

    6.1.1
    6.1.2
    6.2
    6.3
    Colour of elements
    Readability

    Chromatic induction
    High sensitive colours
    Colour defects
    Selecting colours
    Colour and luminance
    Colour vision defects …
    … auditive communication
    … tactile communication
    ConspicuityColour for no attention
    Yellow for attention shortly
    Orange for attention now!
    Red for game over
    Understanding
    Colour not for …

    … quantity …
    … price
    … time, queuing
    … delays
    … way finding
    … identification

    Contrast of elements
    Identification and readability
    Assimilation
    Minimal contrast
    Conspicuity
    Information to be recalled
    Unexpected information
    Contrast not …
    … change foreground
    … use of foreground and background
    … for expected information
    … for trains
    … in emergency signs… in a logo
    Presentation of elements
    Identification and readability

    Running text
    Changing text
    Conspicuity
    Dynamic presentation not for …
     
    7.
    7.1

    7.1.1
    7.1.2
    7.1.3
    7.1.4
    7.1.5
    7.1.6
    7.1.7

    8.
    8.1

    8.1.1
    8.1.2
    8.1.3
    8.1.4
    8.1.5
    8.1.6
    8.2

    9.
    9.1









    9.2

    (Too) much to see
    Crowdedness

    Double functions
    Multi language signs
    Bus indicator
    Map
    LogoShow off new technology
    Showing technology

    Positioning elements
    Position in line of sight

    Sign posts
    Platform indicators
    Insert bank note this way Number and label
    The information street Lift up and lift downYou are here
    Information not in line of sight

    Structuring the visual environment
    Structuring …

    … tables
    … times of closure
    … maps
    … maps with numbered knot
    … maps, three dimensional
    … public transport spaces
    … shopping mall
    … chaos Structures not to use …
     10.


    Part II:
    11
    11.1
    11.2
    11.3
    11.4

    12
    12.1
    12.2
    12.3
    12.3.1



    12.3.2
    12.3.3
    Auditory elements


    Text in the environment
    Too much text
    Signs
    Ads
    News
    Legal information

    Clear text
    Specific wording
    Positive wording
    Don’t use unclear words

    Formal words …
    … naming ticket windows
    … naming companies, e.g. public transport
    … naming functions, e.g. taxi
    Technical jargon
    Incorrect words … … naming ring roads … naming public transport lines … naming station buildings
    … naming targets for way finding, quiz
     13
    13.1
    13.2
    13.3

    Part III:
    14.
    14.1
    14.1.1
    14.1.2

    15.
    15.1

    15.1.1




    15.1.2

    15.2.3

    Structure in language
    Combining words, e.g. in sentences
    Combining graphical elements
    Combining elements

    Familiarizing the environment
    Too much to remember
    Memory load
    Numbers and codes and codes
    Non distinctive elements

    Familiarity
    Enhancing familiarity
    Naming elements …
    … international words
    … motor way exits
    … taxi companies
    … public transport companies
    International words …
    … for ring roads
    Abbreviations …
    … on public transport indicators

     Part IV:
    16.
    16.1
    16.1.1


    16.1.2




    16.1.2




    16.2
    16.1.1
    16.2.1
    16.2.2
    16.3

    16.3.1








    16.3.2
    16.3.3






    16.4

    17.
    17.1

    17.1.1





    17.2




    17.3

    18.
    18.1

    18.1.1







    18.1.2
    18.1.3



    18.2

    18.2.1



    18.2.2

    Understanding environment
    Reduction of mental load
    Calculating environment

    Calculation of time …
    … to departure
    … for pause, walk or run
    Calculations from …
    … passenger’s point of view
    … no platform numbers
    … current temperature
    … free car park spaces
    Decide for the user …
    … direction to go
    … car park to go
    … Tom Tom versus map
    … one button, two decisions
    Reliability of environment
    Schedule
    Time of departure
    Price
    Invisible environment

    Differences between humans …
    … no differences
    … not for all
    … ’Not for you’
    … handicapped only
    … emergency
    … assembling point
    … emergency exit
    … emergency exit only
    Differences in transport technology
    Difference in place, ’You are here’ on …
    … maps
    … taps
    … motor ways
    … railways
    … bicycle ways
    … arrows
    Interacting environment

    Clear concepts
    Understanding

    Icons for
    … direction to go, arrows
    … ring road
    … ring road you are here
    … ring road direction
    … counting down
    Unveiling the invisible environment
    Controlling …
    … crowdedness
    … price
    … energy
    Showing x-nesses

    Navigation
    One dimensional: rows, lists and lines

    Task based structures …
    … touch screen vending machines
    … buttons vending machines, article … buttons vending machines, quiz … frame button screen interfaces
    … platforms … public transport indicators … listing motor way destinations
    … naming concentric ring roads
    Database based structures
    Infra structural structures…
    … front and rear of the train
    … several languages
    … directions or destinations
    Two dimensional: maps, spaces and tables

    Tables for …
    … open and closed
    … time of departure
    Lay out of physical elements
    … maps versus lists
    … old cities versus new cities
    … platforms
     19.
    19.1


    19.2
    19.3

    Part V:
    20.
    20.1


    20.2


    20.3

    21.
    21.1
    21.2
    21.3
    Multi level spaces
    Three dimensional maps

    … for complex buildings
    … for ski maps
    Underground structures
    Invisible structures

    Interdisciplinary discrepancies
    Technology and environmental psychology
    Discrepancies in form of elements …
    … pictogram for parking place
    … public transport indicator
    Discrepancies in wording …
    … ratax
    … public transport indicators
    Discrepancies in content

    Marketing and environmental psychology
    Discrepancies in form
    Discrepancies in wording
    Discrepancies in content
                                       22.
    22.1
    22.2

    23.
    23.1
    23.2
    23.3

    23.3.1
    23.3.2
    23.3.3
    23.3.4
    23.3.5
    23.3.6




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    Aesthetics and art
    Discrepancies in form
    Discrepancies in content

    Psychology and environment
    What is a man?
    What is an environment?
    What is task of man in environment?
    Search
    Identify
    Recall
    Understand
    Control and attract attention
    Control and investigate eye movements
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    Method

    The program mentioned above is used when there is no input from participants. A disadvantage of taking the input of the participants is that at first sight the program becomes chaotic. However, from the participants point of view, chaotic it will be any way. Psychology as starting point is unusual and therefore, for most participants chaotic. In addition, learning is changing into a new situation, and one has to get used to the new situation. There is a very strong and reliable compass. There are five main roads only: human movement, perception, language, memory and thinking.A topic starts with an introduction (common knowledge, anecdote, problem an attendee brings in). Psychological knowledge relevant for that topic is presented briefly. A short experiment, with the attendees as subjects, may be conducted. Then application using, design practice of the author and, preferably designs of the attendees.
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    Participants

    Psychological knowledge presented is not complicated. The most important requirement for participants is open mindedness and a desire for insight. All knowledge immediately is applied in concrete examples showing how to and how not to. Design aesthetics is important in design, however this course and many of the examples presented are designlessThese requirements for attendees are more important than their background or roles in the design process. These roles might be management, design and evaluation of: public spaces, public information systems, public transport information, tourist information systems.
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    Aims

    The main goal of the course is to provide the attendees with psychological information and methodology they can use in creating and evaluating design solutionsThe problem is not the complexity of this knowledge but open-mindedness for this unusual approach. The approach is not learning to apply guidelines but insight to estimate the psychological benefits and costs.
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    Trainer

    The trainer is dr. Leonard Verhoef
    He developed from a psychologist investigating human thinking to a psychological designer of ultimate interfaces that are used now and that will be used in the future.
    Leonard Verhoef
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    When and where?

    The course is given incompany or in cooperation with local institutes.
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    Search in humanefficiency.nl

    Interfaces used to demonstrated cognitive psychological processes

    Design of in car systems


    Speed control information for cars.
    Point with cursor for an explanation.


    Design of train indicators

    Departure in 30 min.


    Grey half circle:
    Go shoping.
    Departure in 30 min.

    Departure in 15 min..
    Yellow 1/4 circle:
    Go to train.
    Departure in 15 min.


    Departure in 30 sec.

    Source: Amersfoort, The Netherlands, 2008.


    Orange half circle:
    Hurry up!
    Departure in 30 sec.

    Source: Experimental
    designs, Verhoef 2010.


    Trains indicator Amsterdam approx. 1990-2010

    Experimental design destinations indicator.
    Source: Verhoef.

    Design ticket vending


    Check in/out Dutch electronic public transport ticket system (trip costs, debit remaining, bye bye ).

    Experimental check in/out device.
    Source: Verhoef
    NS touch screen train ticket vending machine
    NS touch screen train
    ticket vending machine
    Routing problems
    solved using ...



    Ticket vending machine.
    Language optionfirst step
    (hierarchical solution)?
    Source: Belgium Railways.


    Ticket vending machine.
    Change language any time
    (parallel solution).
    Source: NS/ Verhoef.

    Netherlands Railways touch screen train ticket vending machine.

    It looks like a menu.
    However,
    no hierarchical steps.
    What is the structure?"

    Which button is
    to help whizzkids
    and it-specialists?
    Source: NS/Verhoef.


    coffee drink vending machine, use of gray out.
    The train ticket vending
    machine solution is general
    applicable. It also can
    be used for complex drink
    vending machines.
    Source: Verhoef.

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