ETCS-mmi interface,

ETCS-mmi interface, design and psychological background information, from the mmi design team.

MMI-team online,

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MMI-team reports on paper

The presentation of Train Control Information, Part I Orientation: analysis, criteria and presentation. Utrecht: Netherlands Railways, SE ARBO/A&E/1991/1125-part I, Rookmaaker, D.P. Verhoef, L.W.M. and Vorderegger, J.R, (1991).

Development of a European solution for the Man-Machine Interface (European train cabs), Part II Evaluation and Suggested Presentation for a Euro Display. Utrecht: UIC/ERRI/A200/M.f4-945222-01.0-9412, Maessen, N. Verhoef, L.W.M. & Vorderegger, J.R. (1994).

MMI, Man Machine Interface. Utrecht: UIC/ERRI/ETCS, A 200/M-FRS.02-955733-01.00-951512, (1995).

Driver input for ETCS. Utrecht: UIC/Erri, pag. A200/M02-B0642-01.01-96118, Göbel, M.P. Maessen, E.J.M. D.P. Rookmaaker, L.W.M. Verhoef, J.R. Vorderegger, (1996).

EIRENE-MMI, Basic options and principles (phase 2). Utrecht: Arbo Management Groep \ Ergonomics, Vorderegger, J.R. & L.W.M. Verhoef, (1997).

EIRENE-MMI, User assessment (phase 4). Utrecht: Arbo Management Groep \ Ergonomics, Vorderegger, J.R. Verhoef, L.W.M. & Rookmaaker, D.P. (1997).

Eirene - MMI (phase 5), Requirements and Design Proposals. Utrecht: Arbo Management Groep\ Ergonomics, Vorderegger, J.R. & L.W.M. Verhoef, (1997).

ERTMS (ETCS/EIRENE) MMI, The Man Machine Interface of the European Train Control System and the European Radio System for Railways. Utrecht: UIC, Rookmaaker, D.P. Verhoef, L.W.M. & Vorderegger, J.R. (1998).

ERTMS/ETCS Icons, Utrecht, AMG\Ergonomics, Report 1814/A200.1/M-C0375-02.00-971231, Weitenberg, A., & Vorderegger J.R., (1997).

Een taak-gebaseerde interface voor Europese treinbestuurders. Tijdschrift voor ergonomie, vol. 23, no. 1, Vorderegger, J.R. Verhoef, L.W.M. & Rookmaaker, D.P. (1998).
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Papers and articles MMI-team
on paper

The presentation of speed control information of ETCS train drivers. In: World Congress on Railway Research, Paris, SNCF Dir. de la Recherche, pag. 959-964, Rookmaaker, D.P. Verhoef, L.W.M. Vorderegger, J.R. & Maessen, E.J.M.(1994).

The cab display test as a driving simulator, ETCS/ERRI project. In: World Congress on Railway Research, pag. 1217-1219, Rijpkema, H. Holslag, R. Vorderegger, J. & Verhoef, L.W.M. (1994).

Integration of cab systems, ergonomic considerations. In: Eirene-User Formum Nov 7th Utrecht: ETCS-NS-Se Arbo/ ergonomics, Rookmaaker, D.P. (1996).

A Task Based Interface For European Train Drivers, Stech'96 24-26 September 1996. Birmingham: Inst. of Mechanical Engineers, Rookmaaker, D.P. Verhoef, L.W.M. & J.R. Vorderegger, (1996).

A Task Based interface for European train drivers. In: Better Journey Time - Better business, pag. 79-84, Rookmaaker, D.P. Verhoef, L.W.M. & Vorderegger, J.R. (1996).

A Task Based interface for European train drivers, ImechE conference. Birmingham: Inst. of Mech. Engineers, Rookmaaker, D.P. Verhoef, L.W.M. Vorderegger, J.R. (1996).

EIRENE MMI project: ergonomic issues, Workshop The European Man Machine Interface; background, choices and technology, Jan. 9th 1997. Paris: UIC, Verhoef, L.W.M. (1997).
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Anonymous, (1996). Better Journey Time - Better Business, IMechE Conference Transactions. London: Inst. of Mech. Engineers.

Bowen, D.J. (1994). Dutch Eurodisplay may presage standard for HSR Cab Displays. High Speed Transport news, vol. 3, no. 4.

Nomination Rotterdam Design Prize 1997. ETCS MMI: interface for train drivers

 Taal en teken op het spoor, Trouw 7
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Persons involved in the ETCS-mmi development
(to be extended)

40expertstrain control safety expertEuropean Networks
240Driverstest mmis in simulator12 European Networks
Aad deGeustechnicianNetherlands Railways
MariekeGöbelcognitive psychologistNetherlands Railways
HansRijpkemaprogrammerScan/ Media-Gn
JochenVordereggerindustrial designerNetherlands Railways
LeonardVerhoefcognitive psychologistHuman Efficiency
NoelMaessencognitive psychologistNetherlands Railways
NatashaWeitenbergcognitive psychologistNetherlands Railways
PieterRookmaakermanager ETCS-mmi-teamNetherlands Railways
RensHolslaggraphical interface designerHolslag vof
SebastiaanVossimulator hardwareVos

More psychology for:
GUI and webdesign Improve GUI and usability using psychology          

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Icon design Grammar for graphics: Understandable signs for streets, stations and roads for car divers, pedestrians and skippers gevoeligheid netvlies voor kleuren voorgrond, achtergrond kilometerteller snelheid meter  3-d, perspectief,drie-dimensionaal       

Futur How to organize our lives in a technical futur, using psychology                 

Arithmetic in primary school Computers, futur and education  arabische reken leermeester   
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ERMTS-mmi Speed control information for drivers of high speed trains     

Book Why designers can’t understand their users. Developing a systematic approach using cognitive psychology  

ERMTS-mmietcs ermts driver mmi ergonomics psychology distance to braking curve infographics

ERMTS-mmietcs ermts driver mmi ergonomics psychology distance to braking curve

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tom tom navigatie auto

Public info road traffictom tom navigatie auto planning


x Invoer Morsesleutel Toekomst        multidimensionaal graphic   

Public design

 NS treinkaart automaat b100 betalen openbaar vervoer NS treinkaart automaat b8060 betalen openbaar vervoer  IMO international maritime organisation muster station sign plattegrond IKEA water vaar verkeersbord maximaal hoogte water vaar verkeersbord maximaal drie dik aanleggen water vaar verkeersbord maximale doorvaart hoogte 3 meter experimenteel vertrektijden bord openbaar vervoer structuur openbare ruimten experimenteel vertrektijden bord openbaar vervoer atb etcs snelheidsbeheersing aandacht trekken water vaar verkeersbord verboden aanleggen water vaar verkeersbord maximale hoogte water vaar verkeersbord verboden 3 dik aanleggen met meer schepen trein vertrektijd perron NS CTA OV openbaar vervoer betalen ov-chipkaart toekomst grafische bestemmingen lijst metro ondergrondse lijn  structuur hoefijzer winkelcentrum 

Icon/sign design

  3-d, perspectief,drie-dimensionaal verkeersbord toekomst parkeerverbod verkeersbord toekomst verboden inhalen verkeersbord toekomst maximum snelheid bepaalde 


helderheid voor betrouwbaarheid hersenen limgisch systeem en cortex aandacht trekken en aandacht sturen gebruik van de kleuren rood oranje en geel gevoeligheid van het oog voor kleuren humunculus mensmetafoor een mens in de zaadcel 

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Leren rekenen

leren rekenen basisschool MAB rekenblokken toekomst onderwijs leren lezen leren rekenen supermarkt leren rekenen basisschool tellen op de vingers aftellen leren rekenen vleksom puntsom rekenonderwijs basisschool tientallig stelsel tellen op de vingers rekenonderwijs basisschool computer diagnostiek remedial teaching graphics for quantitative data next generation 

Hogesnelheidstrein (ERMTS)

  ERMTS hoge snelheidstrein hsl ATB experimenteel interface voor machinist ERMTS high speed train control driver mmi ERMTS hoge snelheidstrein hsl ATB experimenteel interface voor achinist ERMTS hoge snelheidstrein hsl ATB experimenteel interface voor achinist 

Wetenschappelijke verantwoording


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Examples of (experimental ETCS designs
he contributed to.


Analog classical
experimental clock design
Train speed: 192.
Maximum permitted speed
200. Next target permitted
speed 40. Good for general
maintain speed task,
bad for planning and when
close to intervention.

Analog design, screen

Diagrammatic design,
vertical version.
Braking curve should
not touch maximum
permitted speed curve.
The tongue below should
fit in the pipe above.
Good for planning and
insight, bad when
close to intervention.

Diagrammatic design,
horizontal version.
Comparable with
vertical version.

Animated design
Braking curve should not
touch max permitted
speed curve. The “vehicle”
in front should not be too
close. Good when close to
intervention, bad for
planning and insight.

etcs mmi, ermts, high speed driving speedometer
Speed and
safety information
for high speed train
The one that is now
Source: ETCS/Verhoef.

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Cab with inconsistent
interfaces. Visible, even
at low resolution.
Inconsistent presentation
and input of:
date, time, numbers, colours,
enter procedures, control of

Cab with consistent
interfaces. No differences in
presentation and input of:
date, time, numbers, colours,
enter procedures, control of

Consistent icon design.
The graphic elements can
be combined for current
functions and for functions
to be developped. The
graphic elements are like
words. Designers can create
new sentences. Drivers
knowing the elements can
understand new
combinations of


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Use of colours

Same use of colours for all
information. Colour is used
for control of attention.

Use of colour, white: no
braking curve.

Use of colour, yellow:
brake shortly.

Use of colour, orange:
brake now!!

Use of colour, red:
brake too late, intervention.

This use of colour for
control of user's attention
can be used for any systems,
for instance for passengers
and teachers.

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At the right maximum train
speed profile ahead. Lower
maximum speed at 1000m.

The planning design was
based on the experimental
diagrammatic design
(see above).

Time to intervention

The small square at the top
left shows that there is
sufficient time to safety
system brake intervention.

Train braking curve is
close to safety braking
curve. The square top
left shows time to
intervention of the
safety system. Time
to intervention depends
on maximum permitted
speed minus current
speed and the traction/
brake application. When
looking outside the
square is in the visal
periphery but will be
noticed when it comes
up because: the
periphery is sensitive
for changes, for high
contrast changes and
the square is at the
top of the screen.
This design was based
on the experimental
animated design
(see above).