From buttons for fingers towards graphics for brains

History and future of ticket vending (machines). Problems and solutions of: hard buttons; frame button; touch screen; electronic cards; and price communication in a dynamic interactive and integrated way.


There are several generations train ticket vending machines.

  • In the buttons phase the problems are anthropometric and perceptual (pressing keys and readability of information). Ergonomics solved these problems.

  • The frame button phase showed that frame button screens might be applicable for simple tasks such as issuing bank notes but not for train tickets in a complex selling system.
  • Touch screen technology is more appropriate for public use of complex systems. To prevent problems, cognitive psychology should be leading.

  • In the electronic card phase, the options for tickets and prices increase. When the travel products to be sold are based on traditional marketing principles, it is almost impossible to arrive at an acceptable interface.

  • When the ticket vending system survives the electronic card system, systems will become, dynamic, interactive and integrated. What are cognitive psychological requirements for this generation?
  • Graphics for brains while checking-in


    The past unveils the future of TVMs (ticket vending machines). These machines evolved in several decades from 'physical one-product-one-coin-machines', towards 'non-physical contactless invisible electronic systems'.The latter has no buttons, no screens and . . . maybe there is no need for interface designers. However, this analysis shows that for future systems there are new requirements and there is a lot of work to do for interface designers.
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    1 The buttons phase

    1.1 The interface technology

    In the One-coin-one-product-phaseinterface design was no problem. The system is so simple and physical, that buying a ticket is easy.
    One coin, one (platform) ticket vending machine.
    Real problems came when the number of buttons, the number of products and the ways of payment increased.

    1.2 The problems

    When controls are electronic, the size can be decreased and problems with the operation arise. Fortunately for these problems, science could give straightforward requirements for button size, character size and luminance contrast. An extensive investigation for NS, observing hundreds of train passengers with a hidden camera, revealed that in the multiple-buttons-and-text-machine-phase, interfaces proved to be more difficult to design than psychologists could imagine ). Some results of an investigation using the machine in the figure at the right are:

  • 11% of the passengers pressed the destination text instead of the white button on the right of the text. 0.3% of the passengers bought a ticket to the wrong destination. Half of these passengers selected a destination that was one line higher or one line lower than the destination they intended to press.
  • There were several observations that have shown that passengers did not press the button of the class they intended to press. For instance, 1% changed class before payment and at least 0.15% of the passengers bought a ticket of another class than they intended (n=426). The distance between class indication and button was between 2 and 11 cm.

  • 50% of the passengers do not notice anOut of ordermessage and they proceeded to select their destination (n=426). The visual distance between the first step:selecting a destinationand the second step: noticing the textOut of order(in red in the price display), was approximately 40 cm.

  • These are some of several problems caused by not taking account of But understanding was a problem too (Verhoef, 1986).
    autelca b100 ticket vending machine
    The Autelca B100 train ticket vending machine of Netherlands Railways. Approx. 1980. The machine was in use by several European railways (British, Dutch, Italian, Swiss).

    1.3 The solutions

    To solve the problems with the buttons-phase B100 ticket vending machine different strategies were chosen.

  • The machine was designed by Autelca, a company based in Switzerland. It is unclear what ergonomic principles were applied. The Swiss Railways informed NS at that time that they were satisfied because the text on the machine met their requirements for readability.
  • A text solution including several hundreds of words to explain the operation, was chosen in Germany ( . The Japanese Railways preferred the same solution The text solution became a DIN for German public transport ticket vending machines. A Swiss evaluation rejected the solution . The approach was abandoned in Germany ten years later

  • Netherlands Railways did not apply text to instruct passengers how to use the machine but applied psychological principles. NS changed the machine, for instance by reducing visual distance on the instructionless B8060.
  • public transport ticket vending machine b8060
    Dutch railways B8060 second generation text instructionless buttons vending machine.
      public transport ticket vending machine DIN
    Public transport ticket vending machine German DIN
    public transport ticket vending machine DIN
    Public transport ticket vending machine German DIN, Swiss experimental version (Felix, 1988).

    public transport ticket vending machine DIN
    Public transport ticket vending machine German DIN, with destinations list.
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    2 The frame buttons phase

    2.1 The interface technology

    The first screens for public systems were the frame button screens for issuing banknotes (see figure right).

  • Up to 1995 frame button interfaces were preferred over touch-screen interfaces because several problems were solved (costs, vandal proofness).
  • Frame buttons have an obvious input technology that is easy to understand by users and easy to develop for designers. The hard buttons are familiar, easy to recognize, and the screen enables the designer to present variable texts for the buttons at low visual distance. The buttons dictate the position of the information, there is no discussion on the arrangement of the information. With very little hardware the system can present far more options than the buttons only machines.
  • sncf public transport ticket vending machine frame button
    SNCF train ticket vending machine using frame button technology

    2.2 The problems

    has shown that screens with frame buttons create psychological problems that are hard to solve for the interface designer.

  • The task to perform at a banknote issuing machine is: insert card, enter pin code, enter amount and take out your card and your money. Even at that time ticket vending was much more complex.

  • For the frame button banknote machines it was easy to win from the rather userunfriendly alternative (queuing for the wrong window at an inconvenient moment).

  • The main problem of frame button interfaces is that simply indicating the meaning of a button, determines completely the visual structure of the interface. The buttons dictate a visual structure of lists adjacent to the frame. This impairs the using visual structure for cognitive problems, for instance having an overview of the parameters to be selected and changing parameters of the product selected in an earlier step.
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    3 The touch screen phase

    3.1 The problems

    Designers think that users do not understand that a touch screen should be touched. They try to help, using conspicuous texts (Press me!) and realistic buttons. We tested the premise that the input problem with a touch-screen interface was a really a problem. Of all passengers, including many elderly passengers not having used any screen technology, 0,0% has problems pressing a button on a touch-screen Touching is not the problem and costly attention attracting and graphics should not be used to solve a not-existing problem.The main problem at that time (1999) with screen technology was that screen interfaces had a rather bad usability reputation. Professional users had to accept bad usability but public transport cannot force every passenger to adapt himself to an awkward technology.
    NS touch screen train ticket vending machineNS touch screen train ticket vending machine
    Step 1: select ticket type

    3.2 The solution

    NS solved the usability problem using available research performed on previous generations of ticket vending machines and more general cognitive psychology. Graphical design and technology had to operate within cognitive psychological requirements. Psychology was not used afterwards to establish that passengers do not understand the machine. The main problem is routing – i.e. steering the user through the sequence of sub-tasks that have to be performed to acquire a ticket. On hard button vending machines, for technical reasons, it is impossible to install controls in positions that are the best from a psychological point of view (top-bottom or left-right).

    On screens there is a logical solution for this problem: give each step its own window and present them sequentially as is done by wizards. However, following a sequential procedure is not how people generally operate. In addition, a sequence of windows does not give an overview of the steps done and the steps to be taken. Changing selections made, is a problem too. Hierarchical and sequential procedures cause the well known navigation problem.

    A typical example is the choice of language. In common practice the language question is the first step to take. However, the language function can easily be made parallel instead of sequential, using a permanent change languagebutton. Observations at Schiphol Airport Station show that the language button is not pressed as a first step.
    sncb ticket vending machine first stem language choiceStep 1: of a Belgium touch screen ticket vending machine (select language).
      The routing problem also can be solved in a non-sequential and non-hierarchical way. The solution is presenting the controls belonging to one task conspicuous and immediately adjacent to the fixation point of the previous step. Although, this interface looks like a traditional hierarchical menu. However, it is a parallel multi-dimensional orthogonal structure.

    In the NS touch screen machine (see picture below) there was more cognitive psychology implemented than selecting language and routing. For instance:
  • Parameters could be changed at any time, without returning to the main menu or pressing cancel.

  • The list of stations included synonyms for stations having several names, for instance Den Haagand 's Gravenhage(presented in the list under the letters D, H, S and G).

  • In a list, a group of stations (e.g. all Amsterdam stations) was not broken up but presented in one column. Because of that, the design for the list looked frayed but the number of errors selecting a station was in some cases reduced with 4%.
    NS touch screen train ticket vending machineNS touch screen train ticket vending machine
    Step 6: select the number of tickets.

    3.3 The evaluation

    The interface was tested in several ways.
    After tests with several hundreds of passengers the answer to the question: Is the touch-screen TVM user-friendly?proved to be:Yes, even for people 90 years of age and hardly being able to travel anymore.
  • It should be noted that young passengers and ICT professionals had problems changing selections. After making an error they searched a chancel button and started again. For these special groups of users the cancel button was introduced. Old passengers, for instance, just changed their selection and did not search for cancel.

  • There was no need to change the first concept of the interface after the tests in 1998. After more than ten years complexity is multiplied (tickets for dogs, bicycles, round trips, starting at another station, tickets for abroad).
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    4 The electronic card phase

    4.1 The interface technology

    For all public transport in the Netherlands in 2005 one system of contactless electronic ticketing was introduced.

    Having such a card you can enter anywhere in the Dutch public transport system and exit anywhere. No paper tickets, no ticket windows, no ticket vending machines, no value cards stolen nor cards being skimmed by criminals.
    Problem 1: Confusion with other payment systemsThere are differences between the travel chip card and other electronic value cards the passengers are familiar with. There are differences in:
  • deposit on the card: yes/no,
  • access to bank account: yes/no,
  • number of products on the card: money only/several train tickets as well.
  • The only information the card shows is:This is a public transport chip card.The passenger can't see it is a traditional single train ticket 2nd class to Amsterdam. The interface is invisible as predicted but not in the sense Norman intended.
      A verbal solution of the confusion problem
    The Dutch OV-chip-card obscured financial actions.

    On a verbal level there is jargon, technology driven and incorrect words (see table below) were used.

  • The nameOV-chip cardrefers to technology used (chip not a magnetic stroke as usual at that time). OV-debit cardas a name would explain to the passengers that there is money on the card, which was not common practice at that time (credit card, PINcards).
  • The term check-inobscures several financial transactions:You made an advanced payment.The airplane metaphor is incorrect: When checking in at the airport you do not pay but you deliver your luggage.

  • The term check-out obscures financial transactions as well: The final payment has been made.The airplane metaphor is incorrect again. You do not check out nor do you perform any financial transaction at the end of a plane trip.

  • More examples of technology driven terminolgy, jargon en incorrect terms, below.

    Context ⇵

    Lang. ⇵

    Unclear word ⇵

    Why unclear ⇵

    Clear word ⇵

    Why clear ⇵

    Transp. pub. ovchipAccount registreren.

    Uw OV-chip beheren via Internet.
    [Control your OV-chip using the Internet.]
    Familiar terms.

    Transp. pub. ovchipBasistarief [basic fee].

    Instapkosten. Vaste (reis)kosten, opstaptarief,
    startgeld, starttarief, begintarief. [starting fee]
    User action related.

    Transp. pub. ovchip

    Geschatte reiskosten.
    Afrekening vergeten.[Estimated travel costs.]

    Transp. pub. ovchipCheck-in.

    Voorschot betalen [prepayment].Common meaning for passengers.

    Transp. pub. ovchipCheck-out.Uncommon meaning for public transport bus and train passengers.Afrekenen [(final) payment].That is what happens.

    Transp. pub. ovchipControle.[Check.]

    Conducteur (heeft kaartje gezien).
    [Guard (checked your ticket).]
    That is what happenend.

    Transp. pub. ovchipCoulance. [Indulgence.]

    Vergoeding (voor fout vervoerder).
    [Compensation mistake of company.]

    Transp. pub. ovchip

    Error: the passenger does not announce his arrival as in a hotel or airport.

    Compatible with user task action: prepaying.

    Transp. pub. ovchipInstaptarief [entrance fee]. ...

    Instapkosten [entrance costs].That is what the meaning is.

    Transp. pub. ovchip

    Using Internet.

    Transp. pub. ovchip

    Gekocht product
    op ovchipkaart zetten.
    [Put the product you bought on your card.]
    Task action of the passenger.

    Transp. pub. ovchip

    (Reis)tegoed verhogen [increase debit].
    Opwaarderen [upgrade].
    Contante storting [cash payment].
    Automatische storting [automatic payment].

    Transp. pub. ovchip

    No passenger payment actions.
    Technology (chip) independent.

    Transp. pub. ovchipProduct activeren [activate product].

    Product op de ovchipkaart zetten.
    [Put the product you bought on your card.]

    Transp. pub. ovchipReishistorie [Travel history].

    Gemaakte reizen/trips [Trips made.].

    Transp. pub. ovchipReizen op saldo [debit travelling].

    Prepaid (payer).Known concept (prepaid phone payer).

    Transp. pub. ovchipTransacties.

    Betalingen [payments].That is what the passenger did.

    Transp. pub. ovchipVaste voet [fixed level].

    Instapkosten. Vaste (reis)kosten, opstaptarief,
    startgeld, starttarief, begintarief, [starting fee].

    18 woordanalyses gevonden voor: "ovchip".
    A visual solution of the confusion problem, check-in

    When checking-in the information given to the passenger did not provide information about the financial transaction that occurred while checking in.

    The system did not inform the passenger whether he has checked-in or checked-out. Being in or out proved to be a serious problem because passengers forgot to check-in/out or had to check in/out several times during one trip.

    The experimental check-in pole at the right presents the financial transactions being carried out while checking-in.

    A visual solution of the confusion problem, check-out

    When checking-out the information given to the passenger did not provide information about the financial transaction that occurred while checking in.

    The check-in/out status according to the system was not presented to the passenger.

    The experimental check-out pole at the right presents the financial transactions being carried out while checking-in.

    Problem 2: One payment system but company dependent fare systems The system was introduced as one system for all public transport in the Netherlands. However, there was not one fare system. Each company kept its own fare system. Sometimes a one price for the whole trip system (e.g. in a small underground system) and sometimes the system was degressive (the longer the trip the lower the price per km). When passengers changed company they had to check out and check in again. Passengers did not understand why sometimes they had to check in and to check out again when changing trains standing on the same platform.The public transport solution of problem 2

    Maintaining the company dependent fare system was essential for dividing income between transport companies and from a technical point of view could not be changed. The solution chosen was to force company changing passengers first to check out using electronic doors. This physical solution, of course is more expensive than changing a soft fare system. In addition, this solution made it impossible for the train traffic controller to change platform in case of a disturbance. Finally, in underground situations electronic doors are impractical in case of a disaster. The disaster did not come from a fire or terrorists but from the company dependent system itself. The company dependent fare system and consequently sometimes checking out and in again when changing public transport vehicle, became Nevertheless, the system was not changed.

    Virtual reality was used to test physical means to force passengers to check in and to check out when changing trains.
    Problem 3: The product approach
    A ticket vending machine example

    The vending machine at the right sells the product Fyra (bottom line, second from left). Fyra is not the Dutch name for Brussels but the name of the product/train.
    The ticket vending machine did not solve the price and time problem for the Fyra passenger but just askedFyra, yes or no?(bottom line, second button). The word Fyra does not mean Brussels but has no meaning in Dutch. It is a new fancy product name.
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    5 The cognitive phase

    5.1 Interface technology

    In the button phases the focus was on motor psychological requirements (button size, tactile feedback). In the screen phases the focus was on visual psychological requirements (readability, contrast, colour use and navigation). The next phase in the evolution of systems is support of human cognitive performance.
    The scale of the electronic Dutch Public Transport card made the project rather complex. One can understand that for that reason the passenger was not considered as a part of the system. Now, 2016, the examples given here, public debate and an show that the consequence was a disaster. What would have been the next phase in the evolution of ticket vending systems?

    Requirement 1: fundamental characteristics, e.g. trip characteristics
    The basic concept of the Netherlands Railways touch screen ticket vending machine was a trip parameter concept. For a Fyra trip to Brussels, the passenger should not select an unknown, meaningless, fancy, marketing driven button: Fyra yes/nobut Travel time 90 minutes and € 75or120 minutes and € 50.

    Requirement 2: fundamental characteristics, e.g. payment characteristics
    Electronic systems are invisible. Payment characteristics tend to become invisible for the passenger. Consequently, in electronic systems the ticket vending machine is needed more than ever.
    The passenger be able to change information on the OV-chip-card, have trips and payment overviews and to solve problems (forgotten to check-in/out). Below an example of such an overview.
    Experimental OV-chip-card trips and payment history on a traditional touch screen train ticket vending machine.
      Requirement 3: reliability of the service
    So far some obvious cognitive psychological requirements were mentioned. For human cognition reliability is crucial when making a selection e.g. between a fast, expensive and reliable service at one hand and a slow cheap and delay prone service at the other hand. Therefore, the risk of delays should be presented when a ticket is bought.
    The experimental check-in pole at the right is an example of an efficient communication of the relation between three interacting variables (price, time, service reliability) that human brains can process in 233 milliseconds, e.g. while checking in.

    Experimental example of graphics for brains:
    Check-in pole informing the passenger: departing later is cheaper and gives a more reliable trip.
    Requirement 3: Interaction
    Permanent two way communication between system and deciding elements gives a significant increase of system performance. Public transport system and passenger should inform each other before and during the trip about essential trip parameters such as costs, (delayed) travel time and route. With modern technology more interaction between travel system and passengers is possible.
    Example internet tickets
    The moment/price trade off should be presented when the trip is planned, e.g. when using a travel planner. When buying a ticket using internet there could be an option like:I will take this trip and get a discount for deciding now. No fancy complicated marketing based fare systems the passenger has to study before buying a ticket but aThis is your price now based on your past frequency of traveling and the current situation (rush hour).The information is given after each trip (Next time within one week you get 10% discount) and before the next trip (Ah you again, 10% discount for seeing you again).
    Example mobile devices
    When the system is connected to the mobile system of the passengers interactive, individual, during travel, communication is possible. When there is a major disturbance the system could inform a selection of extra paying passengers (first class passengers in the old days) not to follow the directions on the station but to go somewhere where they will find a bus, for them only. This will decrease their inconvenience and decrease the number of passengers for the standard solution. These kinds of communication will go far beyond today's practice of communicating disturbances to passengers' mobile devices.
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    6 Is there a future for ticket vending machines?

    In 2016 in The Netherlands the record of the product strategy for selling tickets is two disasters for passengers: The fast train Amsterdam - Brussel (Fyra) was a disaster for safety reasons and permanently taken out of service. But the Fyra product based tickets forced themselves on the first screen of a parameter based interface. From an interface technology point of view, mixing a product interface with trip parameter interface was a disaster as well. Why the Fyra service on the first screen and all other services not on the first screen? The second disaster is the Dutch public transport chip-card.The solutions suggested here show that complexity of a system is not a thread for ticket vending systems. The solutions are simple and easy to implement.In 2009 the question was:Have ticket vending machines (interfaces about costs) any future? Disasters show that public transport does not innovate taking account of the cognitive psychology of the passenger. At the other hand there are innovations in road transport (car navigation, dynamic panels). The irony in this case is, that excluding human cognition in system design caused disasters in public transport.
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    Easterby, R., & Zwaga, H., 1984.Information Design, (Chichester etc.: Wiley and Sons Ltd.)

    Felix, D., 1988. Ergonomie-Studie Billettautomatfür den Verkehrsverbund des Kantons Zürich. (Zürich: Inst. für Hygiene und Arbeitsphysiologie der ETH).

    Geiser, G., & Reinig, H., 1980.Der ratlose Reisende vor dem Fahrkartenautomaten, Verbesserung des Mensch-Maschine-Dialogs im Nahverkehr.In: Ingenieurwissenschaften, 4, 26-28.

    Johannsen, G., Mancini, G., & Märtensson, L., 1985. Analysis, design, and evaluation of man-machine systems, 2nd IFAC/IFIP/IFORS/IEA Conference sept. 10-12 Varese CEC-JRC Ispra.

    Norman, D.A., 1998. The invisible computer, Why Good Products Can Fail.(Cambridge (Mas.): The MIT Press).

    Oda, J., 1985.Passengers management and guidance at railway station.In: Johannsen, Mancini Märtensson: Analysis, design, and evaluation of man-machine systems

    Reinig, H-J, 1986. Benutzerfreundliche Fahrkartenautomaten setzen sich allgemein durch,FhG-Berichte, no. 3/4.

    Reinig, H-J., & Wergles, K., 1984.Neue Wege der Fahrgastinformation: Benutzerfreundliche Automaten, Harmonisierte Benutzerführung trotz unterscheidlicher Tarife.Der Nahverkehr, no. 3, 1-4.

    Sandmaier, M., 2007. User centred redesign of Germany's ticket machines for the future.IIID, International Institute for Information Design, In: Simlinger, P. Barrierfree information for public transport.

    Simlinger, P. 2007.Barrierfree information for public transport,IIID Expert Forum Traffic Guiding Systems (Wien: IIID).

    Verhoef, L.W.M., 1986. Perceptual and Cognitive aspects of Ticket Vending machines.(Utrecht: University of Utrecht, Ergonomic Psychology).

    Verhoef, L.W.M., 1999a. Detailontwerp MiniAutomaat.(Almere: Human Efficiency).

    Verhoef, L.W.M., 1999b.De MiniAutomaat, Frame Button of Touch Screen?(Almere: Human Efficiency).

    Zwaga, H., & Easterby, R., 1984. Developing effective symbols for public information.In: Zwaga, H., & Easterby, R. Information design.

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    More applied cognitive psychology for public design:

    Public infowayfinding signing

    Public infohistory futur train and public transport ticket vending machines

    Public infopublic transport space structure wayfinding signposting

    Public infodesign company logo icon pictogram

    Public infodesign company logo aegon icon pictogram

    Public infosignposting wayfinding signing arrows

    Public infopublic transport space structure wayfinding signposting

    Public infopublic transport space structure wayfinding signposting

    Public infowayfinding signposting signing

    Public info public transporttrain ticket vending machines

    Public info public transportNaming public transport lines for passengers

    Public info public transportpublic transport information on dynamic panels

    Public info public transport ovchipuser experience questionaire research

    Public info road trafficTom Tom infographics car navigation

    Public info road trafficother train accidents level crossings

    Public info road trafficNaming ring roads

    Public info road trafficcar park indicators

    Public info road trafficwrong way driving traffic signs

    Public info waterwaypictogram muster station assemply point IMO ferry signing

    Public infobewegwijzering borden icons pictogrammen verdwalen

    Public infocovid-19, corona

    Public infoleren verkeersborden toekomst rijexamen psychologie

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    Public info public transportmarketing company identity

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    Public info public transportdelay announcement departure public transport dynamic indicator

    Public info public transportpublic transport dynamic indicators history future

    Public info public transportpublic transport dynamic indicators history future

    Public info public transporticonen pictogram beelden op verkoopautomaten

    Public info public transportopenbaar vervoer vertrektijden dynamische panelen vertraging verstoring

    Public info public transport ovchipov-chipkaart in-checken out-checken

    Public info public transport ovchipov-chipkaart check-out check-in

    Public info road traffictom tom navigatie auto planning

    Public info road trafficverkeer vrachtwagen tachograaf rijtijden

    Public info road trafficleren verkeersborden toekomst rijexamen psychologie

    Public info waterwayvaarweg verkeersborden aanleggen watersport

    Toekomst geldparkeren betalen elektronisch toekomst parkeerautomaat road traffic

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    More applied cognitive psychology for design, other than public


    x Invoer Morsesleutel Toekomst        multidimensionaal graphic   

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    Icon/sign design

      3-d, perspectief,drie-dimensionaal verkeersbord toekomst parkeerverbod verkeersbord toekomst verboden inhalen verkeersbord toekomst maximum snelheid bepaalde 


    helderheid voor betrouwbaarheid hersenen limgisch systeem en cortex aandacht trekken en aandacht sturen gebruik van de kleuren rood oranje en geel gevoeligheid van het oog voor kleuren humunculus mensmetafoor een mens in de zaadcel 

    Toekomst volgens psychologie


    Leren rekenen

    leren rekenen basisschool MAB rekenblokken toekomst onderwijs leren lezen leren rekenen supermarkt leren rekenen basisschool tellen op de vingers aftellen leren rekenen vleksom puntsom rekenonderwijs basisschool tientallig stelsel tellen op de vingers rekenonderwijs basisschool computer diagnostiek remedial teaching graphics for quantitative data next generation 

    Hogesnelheidstrein (ERMTS)

      ERMTS hoge snelheidstrein hsl ATB experimenteel interface voor machinist ERMTS high speed train control driver mmi ERMTS hoge snelheidstrein hsl ATB experimenteel interface voor achinist ERMTS hoge snelheidstrein hsl ATB experimenteel interface voor achinist 

    Wetenschappelijke verantwoording


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