The information street, article

In the old days each public transport vehicle left from its own platform. Nowadays several vehicles use the same halt, platform, pier or gate. There is, for instance, less space needed for platforms. Another advantage is that more lines can be given a favourable position, which shortens the journey time and possibly means that the passengers have to walk less. A disadvantage of this flexibility is the increasing complexity of the information for the passengers. How to make complexity manageable for the passenger.

Centralized versus decentralized strategy

There are two information presentation strategies in large spaces. Which one is the best?
  In the centralized strategy all information is on one panel (See the two Figures at the right). This is the most common one. From a technical and organisational point of view this is the easiest strategy.trains indicator passenger information station
Figure 1. Centralized presentation

An information panel in a station hall. All information pertaining to the departing trains has been placed on one panel.

Source: Amsterdam Central station, 1990.
trains indicator passenger information station, amsterdam arena
Figure 2. Centralized presentation

All information pertaining to the departing trains (top) top and underground lines (bottom) on one panel.

Source: Amsterdam Arena, 2008.
In the decentralized strategy the information is spread out over several panels. This decentralized presentation is the less common one. The passenger is not given all the information on one panel but stepwise. Thus a passenger has to choose from very broad indicators such as continental/intercontinental, inland/foreign, arrivals/departures and express trains/local trains (See three Figures below).
Liverpool Street station, sign post, way finding, London
Figure 3, It is impossible, NOT to notice the sign posts.

Source: London Liverpool Street station, approx.1990.
Tram dynamic platform indicator, Amsterdam, 1991.
Figure 4. Also, impossible, not to notice indicators.

Source: Amsterdam Central station 1991.
psychological design of train station hall, Utrecht CS. Figure 5. Decentralized, stepwise presentation of inforation

This is the entrance of a train station hall. Same hall as figure 6, psychologist’s impression. This is the entrance point of most passengers in this station. It is almost impossible not to notice the information.

Source: Author, 1985.
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Which one is the best from the user’s point of view?

Architecture versus usershtmh

In a centralized architecture all passengers have to pass the same point and that point can be used for the identity of the station and, of course, the architect. This strategy is compatible with the old days single function buildings such as station and post office. Today buildings are multi functional and a station is a post office, shopping mall and restaurant area as well. Consequently, the shortest route of all passengers may not cross one central point and a central strategy is less applicable. A practical disadvantage of a centralized architecture and presentation is that passengers reading information can hinder the passage of other travelers ( Reading this information takes much time because all information for all passengers is on one position. Research has shown that finding a train on a central panel takes approximately 20 seconds In a decentralized presentation these problems are less serious. On the one hand there is little information being presented so that the reading time is short and the information may be read whilst walking. On the other hand the number of passengers is reduced by sorting them out on previous information points.

As far as passenger routing is concerned decentralized systems score more favourable.
For the passenger the information should be projected in the centre of his visual field. The more peripheral the position of the information the less conspicuous it is.
Centralized panels have a large format because all information should be presented on one panel. Their size reduces the number of options for their placement. Decentralized panels are smaller than centralized panels. That makes it easier to find a position in the line of sight of the passenger. See figure 5.
  For visibility decentralized systems score more favourable.
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Centralized panels present all information at once. This increases crowdedness, increases complexity and reduces conspicuity of important information such as changes in time of departure and platform number. Presenting a lot of information requires some kind of arrangement of information.In decentralized systems the information is presented stepwise. In general this strategy is better for passengers unfamiliar with the system and passengers under stress.
  Centralized systems are more crowded than decentralized systems.

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The working memory of passengers is heavily loaded with travel information (time of departure, platform number, ’don’t forget to validate your ticket’). In addition to non-travel related information such as posting a letter and buying a present. For frequent travelers there might be time pressure and for the infrequent traveler unfamiliarity imposes a mental load.

  Unfortunately for central systems one of the behavioural tendencies found was that details relating to successive choices of routes displayed at one location were often forgotten at later stages.

Decentralized systems impose less load on human working memory. They can present information when a decision has to be made.
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Non-passenger requirements

An architect can, for architectural reasons, decide for a central passenger flow. With one large entrance the architect can better design a typical, unique and prize winning building than with various small entrances in different places.

An important technical disadvantage of a decentralized system operated by remote control, is that more hardware for cabling needed. In addition, the compatibility between the structure of a decentralized system and the schedule database might be less and require more software programming work. Centralized systems are more convenient for technology.

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The info-­street

One specific form of a decentralized system is the ’info-­street’. In this ’street’ panels are positioned one behind the other in such a way that one sees one row of panels. See figures 2. An info-street has the following characteristics:
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Technically and physically decentralized

There is, in a physical sense, a decentralized system. From a visual point of view, the whole system is seen by the passenger at a glance. The visual attention is caught when entering the space

In large open spaces, it is difficult to control the line of sight of the users because there is no physical guidance of walls and corridors. Whenever the passenger enters such an area, then his walking direction is still known as is his viewing direction. At this particular moment it is still possible to catch the eye and to control the attention of the user. If the designer fails to do this, then the lines of sight of passengers are spread out and the designer has lost the attention of passengers. With an info-street the designer catches the initiative when the passenger enters the hall and his line of view still is known. The attention is captured and directed. An info-street is a visual frame where a physical frame is missing.
Decision information centralized

A summary of the information necessary to decide in which direction to go, can be read from the beginning. In the info-street shown in figure 2, that summary is the final destination of the train. Such a summary is what passengers are looking for. found that a behavioural tendency of direction finders was that they looked initially to terms indicating the general area of their objective. At a large distance the passenger can see that more details are available in a smaller format, e.g. the intermediate stops.
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Other disadvantages

In airports halls there is much distance between the entrance hall en locations of planes. In that case a central presentation of information might be the best solution. Airports started using centralized panels. Marketing and management hope having centralized, airport like systems will give the impression of modern information presentation. Passengers might get that impression but at the same time might get lost in the information. An other disadvantage of a decentralized system, is that such a system does not have a ’high tech’ image. The ’high psy’ the system is based on, will only be notices by expert familiar with the field.
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More applied cognitive psychology for public design:

Public infowayfinding signing

Public infohistory futur train and public transport ticket vending machines

Public infopublic transport space structure wayfinding signposting

Public infodesign company logo icon pictogram

Public infodesign company logo aegon icon pictogram

Public infosignposting wayfinding signing arrows

Public infopublic transport space structure wayfinding signposting

Public infopublic transport space structure wayfinding signposting

Public infowayfinding signposting signing

Public info public transporttrain ticket vending machines

Public info public transportNaming public transport lines for passengers

Public info public transportpublic transport information on dynamic panels

Public info public transport ovchipuser experience questionaire research

Public info road trafficTom Tom infographics car navigation

Public info road trafficother train accidents level crossings

Public info road trafficNaming ring roads

Public info road trafficcar park indicators

Public info road trafficwrong way driving traffic signs

Public info waterwaypictogram muster station assemply point IMO ferry signing

Public infobewegwijzering borden icons pictogrammen verdwalen

Public infocovid-19, corona

Public infoleren verkeersborden toekomst rijexamen psychologie

Public info public transportcompany identity en marketing versus noodzakelijke reizigers informatie

Public info public transportmarketing company identity

Public info public transport

Public info public transportdelay announcement departure public transport dynamic indicator

Public info public transportpublic transport dynamic indicators history future

Public info public transportpublic transport dynamic indicators history future

Public info public transporticonen pictogram beelden op verkoopautomaten

Public info public transportopenbaar vervoer vertrektijden dynamische panelen vertraging verstoring

Public info public transport ovchipov-chipkaart in-checken out-checken

Public info public transport ovchipov-chipkaart check-out check-in

Public info road traffictom tom navigatie auto planning

Public info road trafficverkeer vrachtwagen tachograaf rijtijden

Public info road trafficleren verkeersborden toekomst rijexamen psychologie

Public info waterwayvaarweg verkeersborden aanleggen watersport

Toekomst geldparkeren betalen elektronisch toekomst parkeerautomaat road traffic

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More applied cognitive psychology for design, other than public


x Invoer Morsesleutel Toekomst        multidimensionaal graphic   

Public design

 NS treinkaart automaat b100 betalen openbaar vervoer NS treinkaart automaat b8060 betalen openbaar vervoer  IMO international maritime organisation muster station sign plattegrond IKEA water vaar verkeersbord maximaal hoogte water vaar verkeersbord maximaal drie dik aanleggen water vaar verkeersbord maximale doorvaart hoogte 3 meter experimenteel vertrektijden bord openbaar vervoer structuur openbare ruimten experimenteel vertrektijden bord openbaar vervoer atb etcs snelheidsbeheersing aandacht trekken water vaar verkeersbord verboden aanleggen water vaar verkeersbord maximale hoogte water vaar verkeersbord verboden 3 dik aanleggen met meer schepen trein vertrektijd perron NS CTA OV openbaar vervoer betalen ov-chipkaart toekomst grafische bestemmingen lijst metro ondergrondse lijn  structuur hoefijzer winkelcentrum 

Icon/sign design

  3-d, perspectief,drie-dimensionaal verkeersbord toekomst parkeerverbod verkeersbord toekomst verboden inhalen verkeersbord toekomst maximum snelheid bepaalde 


helderheid voor betrouwbaarheid hersenen limgisch systeem en cortex aandacht trekken en aandacht sturen gebruik van de kleuren rood oranje en geel gevoeligheid van het oog voor kleuren humunculus mensmetafoor een mens in de zaadcel 

Toekomst volgens psychologie


Leren rekenen

leren rekenen basisschool MAB rekenblokken toekomst onderwijs leren lezen leren rekenen supermarkt leren rekenen basisschool tellen op de vingers aftellen leren rekenen vleksom puntsom rekenonderwijs basisschool tientallig stelsel tellen op de vingers rekenonderwijs basisschool computer diagnostiek remedial teaching graphics for quantitative data next generation 

Hogesnelheidstrein (ERMTS)

  ERMTS hoge snelheidstrein hsl ATB experimenteel interface voor machinist ERMTS high speed train control driver mmi ERMTS hoge snelheidstrein hsl ATB experimenteel interface voor achinist ERMTS hoge snelheidstrein hsl ATB experimenteel interface voor achinist 

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